Lecture series on energy resources and technology by prof. Hydroelectric power generation is one of many ways in which electricity can be generated. A micro sized plant is one that generates less than 100 kw of electricity and would typically be used to power 12 houses. Aug 24, 2019 hydraulic turbines pdf introduction, classification, impulse and reaction turbine, layout of hydroelectric power plant. First, the cost of the fuel needed to generate hydropower is miniscule because the process doesnt use any of the more common polluting fuels, such as oil, coal, or natural gas. At the outlet of the turbines, the water is discharged to the river via a tailrace. Hydroelectric power plant definition, working diagram. The different parts of a hydroelectric power plant are 1 dam dams are structures built over rivers to stop the water flow and form a reservoir.
If the power plant is operated only to meet the peak demand then it is called peak load plants. Guide on how to develop a small hydropower plant the present document is an updated version developed by the thematic network on small hydropower tnshp of the laymans guidebook on how to develop a small hydro site, by celso penche1998. Hydroelectric power plants are usually located in dams that impound rivers, thereby raising the level of the water behind the dam and creating as high a head as is feasible. In this type of hydroelectric power plants the same water is utilized again. Article includes hydroelectric power plantdefinition, working principle, diagram parts layout, advantage, disadvantage, application, pdf. Heat is added to the compressed air either by burning fuel in the chamber or by the use of air heaters. There several important components of the hydroelectric power plant which we will go over in this brief and informative article. The dam is the most important component of hydroelectric power plant. The coal is stored in either dead storage or in live storage. First approximation of shpp layout and electricty generation 5. British hydropower association a guide to uk mini hydro development v3. A coalfired power plant uses steam to turn the turbine blades. It can be an excellent method of harnessing renewable energy from small rivers and streams. Generally, bituminous coal or brown coal is used as fuel.
Hydroelectric power comes from flowing water winter and spring runoff from mountain streams and clear lakes. Hydro electric power is cheaper as compared with a fuel burning plant. Nothing is perfect, so its ordinary to meet some drawbacks of hydroelectric power plant like. Hydroelectric power plants can include a reservoir generally created by a dam to exploit the energy of falling water, or can use the kinetic energy of water as in runoftheriver hydroelectricity. May 25, 2018 general layout of thermal power plant hindi we discuss about general layout of thermal power plant. Hydropower is a renewable source of energy, which is economical, nonpolluting and environmentally benign among all renewable sources of energy. Design and construction of mini hydropower plant with. In both cases a power source is used to turn a propellerlike piece called a turbine, which then turns a metal shaft in an electric generator, which is the motor that produces electricity. This book is primarily based on theoretical and applied results obtained by the authors during a long time of practice devoted to problems in the design and operation of a significant number of hydroelectric power plants in different countries. The layout covered in this article is just a simple one and only cover the important parts of hydroelectric plant. The hot and highpressure air from the combustion chamber is then passed to the gas turbine where it expands and does the mechanical work. The power generated by a power station is measured in multiples of the watt, typically megawatts 10 6 watts or gigawatts 10 9 watts.
Components of a hydropower plant and their functions. It can be seen as a form of solar energy, as the sun powers the hydrologic cycle. The most common type of hydroelectric power plant is an impoundment facility. A study of hydroelectric power penn state college of. Apart from above classification, hydroelectric power plants can be classified, on the basis of installed capacity, as large, medium, small, mini, and micro hydro power plants. The funding was provided by the washington state education and training coordinating board. In the late 19th century, hydropower became a source for generating electricity. The layout of the hydroelectric power plant is simply the all main and assistance components of the hydroelectric power plant. Classification of hydroelectric power plants based on installed capacity. Issues and applications description of the workplan issue from the work plan of erra licensing competition committee. The following factors are to be considered for selecting the site of a hydroelectric power plant. Mar 18, 2017 in this article we are going to learn how hydroelectric power plant works, what are the requirements of hydroelectric power plant for the selection of site, etc.
Here i am going to explain you the different types of power generating stations or power plant. If the reprint or republication includes ed material, the credit should also state. Microhydroelectric power is both an efficient and reliable form of clean source of renewable energy. Hydraulic turbines pdfclassification, impulse and reaction. In general, pumped storage power plants are peak load plants. Generation of electricity by hydropower potential energy in stored water is one of the cleanest methods of producing electric power. After introducing the site measurements and calculations as input data to the computer program, the weir dimensions, open channel dimensions, penstock dimensions, turbine type, turbine size, turbine power, turbine speed, turbine. In hydroelectric power plants the potential energy of water is utilized to produce electricity. For the formulation of a project and its layout, suitable topographical maps of the area are. Ppt hydro power plants powerpoint presentation free to. Some of the power will be lost through friction at every point of conversion.
First, let us know what is the function of a power generating station. The following factors are to be considered for selecting the site of a hydro electric power plant. Hydroelectricity is the most widely used form of renewable energy. It is a flexible source of electricity and also the cost of electricity generation is relatively low. Pdf the power consumption of the farms in uae is mainly required during. Basic project layout with first approximation of electricity generation.
Anyone wishing to make further use of ed material, by itself and apart from this text, should seek necessary permission directly from the proprietors. It consists of the catchment area, reservoir, dam, slice gate or valve, surge tank, penstock, inlet valve, turbine, draft tube, powerhouse equipment, tailrace etc. Nov 05, 2010 layout of hydro electric power plant spillway. Basic layout and working of a thermal power plant by kiran daware power system almost two third of electricity requirement of the world is fulfilled by thermal power plants or thermal power stations. Hydraulic turbines are machines which convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy. Classification according to availability of water head c. Hydroelectric power plants convert the hydraulic potential energy from water into electrical energy. Three main types of highhead power developments may be discerned. Power plant electrical distribution systems gary w castleberry, pe course description this one hour course provides an introduction to the design of electrical distribution systems found in electrical power generation plants.
In general this is also the nameplate rating except where turbine. Introduction to the specifics of small hydro power plants shpp structure of the presentation 1. Hydropower plants range in size from small systems for a home or village to large projects producing electricity for utilities. Aug 09, 2016 steam power plant can be installed in any area where water sources and transportation facility are easily available. We will understand the gas turbine power plant layout and learn the diagram. Classification according to the extent of water flow regulation available b. In a typical mhs micro hydropower system the water from the source is diverted by weir through an opening intake into a canal fox, 2004. Hydro power g ener ation ca n be inc reased at a given plant by optimizin g a number of dif ferent aspects of plant oper ations, includi ng the settings of individu al units, the coord ination of. In 2009, the three most heavily used sources for generating electricity were coal, natural gas and oil. Mar 21, 2020 hydroelectric power is a preferred energy source in areas with heavy rainfall and with hilly or mountainous regions that are in reasonably close proximity to the main load centres. Hydroelectric dam 1 dam the dam is the most important component of hydroelectric power plant. On this channel you can get education and knowledge for general issues and topics. Time needed to build and finish a hydroelectric plant is too long it may take 18 years.
Pdf design considerations of microhydroelectric power. Hydroelectric power plant definition, working diagram, advantages. The fs includes drawings for general project layout, topography, dam site. The turbine system is designed around net head and design flow. The operational reliability of the generating units of the hydro power stations shall be. Hydroelectricity is the application of hydropower to generate electricity. For plants located at the toes of gravity dams, the space available between the generator room and the face of the dam is a logical location for most of the features enumerated above. For efficient operation of hydropower plants, in order to meet the electricity demand, the hydro energy is stored either in reservoirs for dam based schemes.
Initial cost of the plant including the cost of dam is high. Hydroelectric power comes from flowing water winter and spring runoff from mountain. Layout and working of hydroelectric power plant the above image shows the typical layout of a hydroelectric power plant and its basic components. General layout and essential elements of hydroelectric power plant. Water is diverted from a stream into a pipeline, where it is carried downhill and through the turbine flow. Small hydro is the development of hydroelectric power on a scale serving a small community or industrial plant. Army, usa, technical manual tm 58116, electric power plant design. Hydroelectric power plant definition, principle, usage. There is a growing interest to build pumped storage hydroelectric power plants in order to use them for system regulation purposes. Banerjee,department of electrical engineering, iit kharagpur. Hydroelectric power plant parts working diagram layout. In hydro electric plant, the cost of generation being free. These power plants are similar in design and operation to coal fired plants.
As majority of thermal power plants use coal as their primary fuel, this article is focused on a coal fired thermal power plant. Classification of hydroelectric power plants hubpages. The reservoir stores the water flowing down the river. Potential of hydropower that may be generated from a stream. The hydroelectric power plants may be classified according to. An introduction to hydropower concepts and planning. Pdf design of hydropower plant for energy generation for a mid. The type of equipment utilized in the electrical distribution systems is discussed in terms of. The potential power that can be derived from a volume of water is directly proportional to the working head, so that a highhead installation requires a smaller volume of. Results the design procedure of micro hydro electric power plant was implemented by matlab simulink computer program. Hydraulic turbines pdf introduction, classification, impulse and reaction turbine, layout of hydroelectric power plant.
A power generating station or power plant uses various sources like hydel energy, thermal energy, diesel, nuclear energy to produce bulk electric power. History of hydropower development wind and running water were the only available sources of mechanical power fig. Technology for a better society a hydro power plant can be represented by the following subsystems. Hydroelectric power plant in hydropower plant potential and kinetic energy of the water is used to rotate the turbine and hence generator to generate electricity. The above image shows the typical layout of a hydroelectric power plant and its basic components. These hydropower plants can provide effective cost of energy to remote rural communities. Hydroelectric power is the most popular green energy source for several reasons. The definition of a small hydro project varies but a generating capacity of up to 10 megawatts mw is generally accepted as the upper limit of what can be termed small hydro. The main powerhouse structure, housing the generating units and having either separate or combined generator and turbine room, erection bay, and. Excess accumulation of water endangers the stability of dam construction. Power stations vary greatly in capacity depending on the type of power plant and on historical, geographical and economic factors. Estimation of the water flow rate the water flow rate q can be estimated in different ways but a more suitable method could be measuring. A simplified layout of a thermal power station is shown below. Hydroelectric power plants are categorized according to size.
Hydroelectric energy is the most widely used form of renewable energy, accounting for 16 percent of global electricity consumption. Six important components of hydroelectric power plants. The sizes of hydropower plants are described below. Steam power plant construction,working, advantages and. Hydroelectric power comes from water at work, water in motion. If the machine transforms mechanical energy into hydraulic energy it is called a pump. Water, when it is falling by the force of gravity, can be used to turn turbines and generators that produce electricity. The engineering cost in addition to the constructional cost is also high in a hydroelectric power plant. Some large hydro sites that are remote from load centres may be sufficiently attractive to justify the long highvoltage transmission lines. If we talk about the overall efficiency of steam power plant, than is about 35 % to 41% which is low.
Ontario hydro niagara falls power plant control room. Jan 12, 2018 on this channel you can get education and knowledge for general issues and topics. A hydropower plant was designed to provide electricity to a midsize farm. These favorable characteristics continue to make hydroelectric projects attractive sources of electric power. Hydro power plant construction working and history of hydro. While some power losses are inevitable as water power gets converted to electricity, they can be minimized with good design. Main types of high head power plant developments power plants operating under a head higher than 50 m may be termed as highhead power plants. Hydro power some facts and figures current world hydropower production 2006 3000 twh about 20% of the worlds electricity and about 88% of electricity from renewable sources 777 gwe of capacity in 150 countries us capacity 100,451 mwe 2009 17 78,951 mwe conventional hydro 21,500 mwe pumped storage. Dec 30, 2018 the constructional cost of a hydroelectric power plant maybe higher than that of other conventional thermal power plants because of construction of a huge dam across the flowing river. In this type of hydroelectric power plants the same water is utilized again and again by pumping back during the off peak hours. General layout of thermal power planthindi youtube. In the past waterwheels were used for milling, pumping and lifting water from a lower to a higher elevation for irrigation.
Hydro station has special requirement of site which usually is an isolated area with difficult access. However the hydro electric power plant have the following disadvantages. General layout and profile of a highhead diversion canal development the main parts of a highhead diversion canal type plant are. In a coal based thermal power plant, coal is transported from coal mines to the generating station. In hydropower plant potential and kinetic energy of the water is used to rotate the turbine and hence generator to generate electricity classification of hydroelectric plants. Interview question of hydro electric power station. The ability of hydroelectric plants to provide electricity for. Such plants are suitable were water with suitable head are available. Net head is the pressure available to the turbine when water is flowing more on this later, and design flow is the maximum amount of flow the hydro system is designed to accommodate. Hydroelectric power plant requires various components for. The power generation skill standards for plant operators and plant mechanics are the result of a collaborative project led by the centralia college center of excellence for energy technology. Hydro electric power plants hydroelectric power is achieved by converting the potential and kinetic energy of water by.1441 1368 1105 15 1025 1232 1633 1204 742 75 1611 1133 551 1181 1229 858 510 1671 1176 707 1371 368 1467 1664 1665 891 1369 1442 1225 932 920 894 852 447 567 369 642 851