Org 2 acronyms bci better cotton initiative bt bacillus thuringiensis fao food and agriculture organisation of the united nations. Follow the explanation to understand the need of such a crop and how it is exactly done. Bt cotton in india india is the largest cotton producer and consumer country after china. Bt cotton is genetically modified cotton crop that expresses an. Evaluation of the impact of genetically modified cotton after. Reports of lepidopteran resistance to bt bacillus thuringiensis traits of corn and cotton in the continental unites states have been published by academic scientists in 2014 for the fall armyworm spodoptera frugiperda, in 2016 for the corn earworm helicoverpa zea, and in 2017 for the western. Number of farmers growing bt cotton hybrids in india, 2002 to 2009.
Not only is the adoption and production lower than the other bt adopter countries of the world but also development plans are slower. Effects of nacl stress on the biochemical substances in bt cotton as well as on the growth and development and adult oviposition selectivity of helicoverpa armigera. However, the use of bt cotton raises a dilemma for businesses seeking to differentiate cotton on the basis of production techniques. The firstgeneration bt cotton bollgard had a single bt gene that expressed pro duced cry1ac. One commercial bt cotton genotype in china also expresses the cowpea trypsin inhibitor in addition to a fusion cry1a bt protein, but it is used only on a small scale. The year 20 was therefore the second year of commercial planting of bt cotton in sudan. Sharma3, lewis wilson4, and kongming wu5 abstract transgenic cottons producing cry toxins from bacillus thuringiensis bt provide for control of lepidopteran pests and were first commercially grown in australia, mexico and the. Burkina faso was the second country to adopt bt cotton in 2008, and sudan became the third in 2012. Chapter 6 the present and future role of insectresistant. Questions and answers central institute for cotton research.
United states agriculture agricultural bt cotton january. Due to synthetic pesticide resistance, farmers were losing much of their cotton to tobacco budworms, cotton bollworms, and pink bollworms. As cotton began to gain high popularity, in 2009, a group of entomologist from monsanto corporation found and confirmed the pink bollworm a major cotton pest has developed resistance to bt cotton in 4 states in india monsanto. In the case of bt cotton, the subject is an agrobacterium called bacillus thuringienesis. Generally known to be toxic to various genera of insects but safe to. Bt cotton is a widely accepted tool for cotton producers and has proven to be efficient for the control of lepidopteran pests.
The governments in these states are looking into the issue. The remarkable success of bt cotton in india land holdings, distribution and production of cotton in india adoption of bt cotton hybrids in india, 2002 to 2009 number of farmers growing bt cotton hybrids in india, 2002 to 2009 savings of insecticides due to bt cotton cotton production, yield and importsexports, 2002 to 2009. Jun 18, 2019 bt cotton remains the only gm crop allowed to be cultivated in the country. Creating bt cotton is one of many biotechnology methods allowing a specific or desired traitgene to be transferred from a subject to a plant. As of 2007, a total of six additional countries argentina, brazil, china, colombia, india, and south africa now grow bt cotton on a total production area of 14 million hectares. Cotton plants relatives of okra and hibiscus are cultivated on every continent but antarctica.
India has the largest hectarage of cotton and accounts for approximately one third of the total cotton are planted in the world. Preservation of bt technology is critical for cotton producers across the u. Bt toxins are insecticidal to the larvae of moths, bollworms, etc. Apr 12, 2014 bt cotton in india india is the largest cotton producer and consumer country after china. Cotton belt because of increasing insecticide resistance and production costs. Most scholarship on the closelywatched case of genetically modified bacillus thuringiensis bt cotton in india has focused on shortterm impacts and has also ignored other major changes in india. Farmers used to bt cotton may not really think of an alternative immediately and may consider the pink bollworm problem this season an anomaly. Gene derived from a soil bacterium called bacillus thuringiensis, commonly referred as bt. Bt cotton production in sudan bt cotton cultivation in sudan started in 2012 as response to bollworn infestation that had been responsible for the drastic decline in cotton production in the country since 2008. Strains of the bacterium bacillus thuringiensis produce over 200 different bt toxins. Among biotic factor insectspests damage is highly adversive that caused a great loss of yield and quality of.
In that year, cotton production in india amounted to around 5. Strains of the bacterium bacillus thuringiensis produce over 200 different bt toxins, each harmful to. The worm feeding on the leaves of a bt cotton plant becomes lethargic and sleepy, thereby causing less damage to the plant. This statistic shows the worlds leading cotton producing countries in crop year 20182019. The present edition, besides providing updated statistics, highlights newer issues related to technology, production, economic, social and environmental impacts of. In india and china, in particular, the area under bt cotton has increased sharply over the last couple of years, reaching 25 million acres in 2007 james, 2007. Bt technology has developed from a singlegene trait to multigene trait packages. Bt cotton is here to stay bt cotton is here to stay. Does btcotton impact biodiversity through pollenflow. It is cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions of more than eighty countries of world occupying nearly 33 m ha with an annual production of 19 to 20 million tones of bales.
Japanese biologist, shigetane ishiwatari was investigating the cause of the sotto disease suddencollapse disease that was killing large populations of silkworms when he first isolated the bacterium bacillus thuringiensis bt as the cause of the disease in 1901. Why climate change is material for the cotton industry greenbiz. Mar, 2020 most scholarship on the closelywatched case of genetically modified bacillus thuringiensis bt cotton in india has focused on shortterm impacts and has also ignored other major changes in india. Breeding cotton for heat tolerance and resistance to drought, pests, weeds and diseases is an essential part of a multilevel solution. Does bt cotton impact biodiversity through pollenflow. Disadvantages of gm bt cotton genetic modification. To study the effects of transgenic cotton in the field, a unique team of university, usda and seed industry scientists have come together with growers and consultants from cotton commodity groups and other. Its use dates back to about 3500 bc in india and 3000 bc in peru. Frequent introduction of new transgenic cotton varieties creates a need to continuously evaluate their.
Frequently asked questions on bt cotton 45% of all production costs. This translates into more than 30 percent increase in yield. Aug 06, 2016 the bt cotton lint fetched lower prices on the global market and undermined the global reputation of high quality burkinabe lint. Strains of the bacterium bacillus thuringiensis produce different bt toxins. However, with current low cotton price trends compared to other agricultural crops, i. The bt gene was isolated and transferred from the bacteria to american cotton to produce bt cotton. The bt cotton variety contains a foreign gene obtained from bacillus thuringiensis. These states were sampled purposely to cover a wide variety of different cotton growing situations. United states agriculture agricultural bt cotton january 2001. Yield was already rising sharply in the pre bt cotton era due to non bt hybrid seed, reduction in bollworm incidence from year 2000 and other factors. Burkina faso dominates cotton production in subsaharan africa. Bacillus thuringiensis serves as an important reservoir of cry toxins and cry genes for production of biological insecticides and insectresistant genetically modified crops.
Bt cotton and sustainability of pesticide reductions in india. This story was first published by ensia from wellloved jeans to linens, sneakers and tshirts, cotton is woven into the products we love. In 2017, a governmentled bt cotton commercialization taskforce was constituted. Central and southern india were also the only regions for which bt cotton was commercially approved in 2002. In 1996, the introduction of bt cotton made it possible to reactivate this crop, which in previous years was greatly reduced due to pest problems, production costs and environmental concerns. Cotton is a subtropical crop and is grown either under irrigation or in sub humid and semiarid locations with. Crop production technology for bt cotton varieties in. Cotton is an important fibre cash crop throughout world. Recently, due to the development of food security strategies, cotton has been planted in inland salinealkali dry soils or in coastal some salinealkali soils in china.
Bt cotton remains the only gm crop allowed to be cultivated in the country. Scientists and farmers are developing a variety of strategies and solutions to reduce the negative effects of climate change on cottons growth and production. The approval is part of a routine regulated research process in line with national policies and laws. Department of agriculture, agricultural research service, ars154. For 11th year bt cotton was planted in india in 10. Transgenic cotton, a genetically engineered cotton, carries its own insecticide within the plant tissues see how bt cotton was developed. The indian council of agricultural research icar also has identified three bt cotton varieties f1861, pau bt 1 and rs20 for cultivation in punjab, haryana and rajasthan. Org 2 acronyms bci better cotton initiative bt bacillus thuringiensis fao food and agriculture organisation of the united nations gm genetically modified icac international cotton advisory committee ilo international labour organisation ipm integrated pest management. The present edition, besides providing updated statistics, highlights newer issues related to technology, production, economic, social and environmental impacts of bt cotton in india. The secondgeneration bt technologies, such as bollgard 2, twinlink, and widestrike, produce two bt toxins, and the most recent thirdgeneration bt.
In the 1990s, for the first decade since the green revolution, the rate of growth of agricultural production fell behind the rate of population growth. Bt cotton varieties have been developed in the last decade which are high yielding and insect resistant. Insectresistant bt cotton is the only gm crop currently grown in india. However, 70% of the 73% yield increase reported since bt cotton was first introduced took place between 2002 and 2005 when less than 5% of the area under cotton production had shifted to growing bt hybrids. Bt stands for bacillus thuringiensis a soil bacterium which contains a toxic gene called bt gene. For cotton growers, there was a lot of pressure from pests before the introduction of bt cotton in 1996. This was the worlds first recorded instance of resistance to bt cotton. These genes encode for the production of insecticidal proteins, and thus, genetically transformed plants produce one or more toxins as they grow. Cotton this chapter describes the market situation and highlights the mediumterm projections for. Genetically modified cotton crop that expresses an insecticidal protein gene.
Bt cotton is a cotton variety that has an inbuilt mechanism to protect itself from caterpillar pests, also commonly known as the bollworm. Developed by us giant bayermonsanto, it involves insertion of two genes viz cry1ab and cry2bc from the soil bacterium bacillus thuringiensis into cotton seeds. Pdf the success story of bt cotton in burkina faso. Cotton production statistics and bt cotton adoption in these nine countries is summarized in table 6.
Introduction bt cotton is one of the first genetically modified gm crop technologies with wide distribution in developing countries. Jun 22, 2018 in 1996, the introduction of bt cotton made it possible to reactivate this crop, which in previous years was greatly reduced due to pest problems, production costs and environmental concerns. South africa was the first country on the african continent to adopt bt cotton for commercial production in 1998. After the centre capped the prices of bt cotton seeds in 2016, monsanto withdrew its application for sale of a herbicidetolerant bt cotton seed.
Since then, the burkinabe cotton sector has moved swiftly to reduce bt cotton sowings. This bacterium has two genes of interest, the cry1ac gene, and the cry2ab gene. Of all the inventions studied by elementary school children, eli whitneys cotton gin, which he patented in 1793, stands out as one of the most remembered. Bt cotton has been genetically modified by the insertion of one or more genes from a common soil bacterium, bacillus thuringiensis. Indeed, it is the most widely used natural fiber on the planet. Nov 21, 2018 eli whitneys invention of the cotton gin started the mechanization of the cotton growing and manufacturing process. May 14, 20 crop production technology for bt cotton varieties in pakistan posted by muhammad shakil shaukat on tuesday, may 14, 20 cotton is the major fiber and nongrain crop in pakistan and it contribution is 1. This bacterial gene, introduced genetically into the cotton seeds, protects the plants from bollworm a. Chapter 6 the present and future role of insectresistant genetically modified cotton in ipm steven e. What was once a backbreaking, lowpaying job is done today entirely by machines, but the process is still highly complex and involved. This protection comes from a scientific process known as genetic modification gm. The genetic modification of cotton involves introduction of the bt bacterial gene that codes for a protein which kills the bollworm cotton pest. Generally known to be toxic to various genera of insects but safe to other living organisms. Does bt transformation have negative effects on the physiology of the plant.
In fact, from 2005 to 2012, when up to 90% of indian cotton fields were cultivated with bt cotton, yields have increased only marginally by 2%. Evaluation of the impact of genetically modified cotton. In september 2016, nba granted conditional approval of bt cotton. Introduction cotton is one of the major fibre crops of global significance. Longterm impacts of bt cotton in india nature plants. Is the native desi cotton under threat because of btcotton. Yield was already rising sharply in the prebt cotton era due to nonbt hybrid seed, reduction in bollworm incidence from year 2000 and other factors. Is the native desi cotton under threat because of bt cotton. Stages of the cotton manufacturing process bizfluent.
Cotton is the major fiber and nongrain crop in pakistan and it contribution is 1. Bt cotton is not permitted under organic certification systems, thereby limiting the potential market for this type of cotton. General production outlook small holders choosing improved varieties cotton, a predominantly monsoonseason or kharif crop, is planted from the end of april through september and harvested in the fall and winter. Aug 26, 2017 bt cotton is a genetically modified organism gmo cotton variety, which produces an insecticide to bollworm.
Jan 21, 2018 the governments in these states are looking into the issue. To cater to the needs of every indian in the year 201112 production needs to grow at a rate of 3. Bt cotton is a genetically modified organism gmo or genetically modified pest resistant plant cotton variety, which produces an insecticide to combat bollworm. For the current 20162017 growing season approximately 10% of total production is from bt cotton. White paper on resistance in lepidopteran pests of. Bt cotton varieties yielded significantly more per acre as compare to non bt cotton varieties an average 2328 maund 1 maund 40 kg per acres versus 1720 maund to traditional cotton varieties. The government has put in place an ambitious plan to commercialize bt cotton by 2019. Cotton production, yield and importsexports, 2002 to 2009.
India cotton and products annual 201617 cotton production. Cotton is the main cash crop in burkina faso, and is cultivated on 1015% of the ar able land in. In 2002, a joint venture between monsanto and mahyco introduced bt cotton to india. While bt cotton was approved in 2002, the initial adoption was slow, and by 200405, only 5.1266 630 1269 171 529 1466 1486 852 749 1573 406 613 1640 99 951 1092 923 700 1322 884 845 972 528 84 29 367 443