The following factors are to be considered for selecting the site of a hydro electric power plant. The dam is constructed on a large river in hilly areas to ensure sufficient water storage at height. Figure 11 high head scheme occasionally a small reservoir, storing enough water to operate only on peak hours, when prices. The layout covered in this article is just a simple one and only cover the important parts of hydroelectric plant. A micro sized plant is one that generates less than 100 kw of electricity and would typically be used to power 12 houses.
It consists of the catchment area, reservoir, dam, slice gate or valve, surge tank, penstock, inlet valve, turbine, draft tube, powerhouse equipment, tailrace etc. Potential of hydropower that may be generated from a stream. Initial cost of the plant including the cost of dam is high. First approximation of shpp layout and electricty generation 5. Hydroelectric power plant in hydropower plant potential and kinetic energy of the water is used to rotate the turbine and hence generator to generate electricity. Hydropower plants range in size from small systems for a home or village to large projects producing electricity for utilities. Aug 09, 2016 steam power plant can be installed in any area where water sources and transportation facility are easily available. In general, a powerhouse in hydropower plant may be divided into three areas. Hydroelectric power generation is one of many ways in which electricity can be generated. Hydroelectric power plants are usually located in dams that impound rivers, thereby raising the level of the water behind the dam and creating as high a head as is feasible. Classification according to type of load supplied d. Typical layout and working of a thermal power plant a simplified layout of a thermal power station is shown below. Hydro power plants hydro power plants the principle the water conduits of a traditional high head power plant arrangement of a small hydropower plant water intake dam.
Hydroelectric power plant definition, working diagram, advantages. Lecture series on energy resources and technology by prof. Classification according to the extent of water flow regulation available b. Issues and applications description of the workplan issue from the work plan of erra licensing competition committee. Design considerations of microhydroelectric power plant. Microhydroelectric power is both an efficient and reliable form of clean source of renewable energy. Hydroelectric power plants can include a reservoir generally created by a dam to exploit the energy of falling water, or can use the kinetic energy of water as in runoftheriver hydroelectricity. This book is primarily based on theoretical and applied results obtained by the authors during a long time of practice devoted to problems in the design and operation of a significant number of hydroelectric power plants in different countries. In both cases a power source is used to turn a propellerlike piece called a turbine, which then turns a metal shaft in an electric generator, which is the motor that produces electricity. Design and construction of mini hydropower plant with. Power stations vary greatly in capacity depending on the type of power plant and on historical, geographical and economic factors. An introduction to hydropower concepts and planning. Hydroelectric dam 1 dam the dam is the most important component of hydroelectric power plant. Main types of high head power plant developments power plants operating under a head higher than 50 m may be termed as highhead power plants.
Hydroelectric power comes from flowing water winter and spring runoff from mountain. The running cost of steam power plant is comparatively high because of fuel, maintenance etc. Hydro power plant construction working and history of hydro. In a typical mhs micro hydropower system the water from the source is diverted by weir through an opening intake into a canal fox, 2004.
Introduction to the specifics of small hydro power plants shpp structure of the presentation 1. The layout of the hydroelectric power plant is simply the all main and assistance components of the hydroelectric power plant. Classification according to availability of water head c. For plants located at the toes of gravity dams, the space available between the generator room and the face of the dam is a logical location for most of the features enumerated above.
If the reprint or republication includes ed material, the credit should also state. Layout of hydroelectric power plants hydroelectric power plants convert the hydraulic potential energy from water into electrical energy. General layout and essential elements of hydroelectric power plant. Generally, bituminous coal or brown coal is used as fuel. In hydropower plant potential and kinetic energy of the water is used to rotate the turbine and hence generator to generate electricity classification of hydroelectric plants. Layout and working of hydroelectric power plant the above image shows the typical layout of a hydroelectric power plant and its basic components. Hydroelectric power comes from water at work, water in motion. Small hydro is the development of hydroelectric power on a scale serving a small community or industrial plant. Hydroelectricity is the application of hydropower to generate electricity. Aug 24, 2019 hydraulic turbines pdf introduction, classification, impulse and reaction turbine, layout of hydroelectric power plant. The vertical drop head creates pressure at the bottom end of the pipeline.
Classification of hydroelectric power plants hubpages. Technical specifications of micro hydropower system design. Basic project layout with first approximation of electricity generation. Hydroelectric power plants convert the hydraulic potential energy from water into electrical energy. These hydropower plants can provide effective cost of energy to remote rural communities. Pdf design of hydropower plant for energy generation for a mid. In this type of hydroelectric power plants the same water is utilized again. In hydroelectric power plants the potential energy of water is utilized to produce electricity. The coal is stored in either dead storage or in live storage. Hydroelectricity is the most widely used form of renewable energy. Hydraulic turbines pdf introduction, classification, impulse and reaction turbine, layout of hydroelectric power plant. A free powerpoint ppt presentation displayed as a flash slide show on id. Some of the power will be lost through friction at every point of conversion. Ppt hydro power plants powerpoint presentation free to.
This guide has been translated by the tnshp to german, french, and swedish. Classification of hydroelectric power plants based on installed capacity. Anyone wishing to make further use of ed material, by itself and apart from this text, should seek necessary permission directly from the proprietors. After introducing the site measurements and calculations as input data to the computer program, the weir dimensions, open channel dimensions, penstock dimensions, turbine type, turbine size, turbine power, turbine speed, turbine. Steam power plant construction,working, advantages and. Design and construction of mini hydropower plant with propeller turbine, pp. In 2012, hydroelectric power plants contributed about 16% of the total electricity generation in the world. As majority of thermal power plants use coal as their primary fuel, this article is focused on a coal fired thermal power plant. Pdf design considerations of microhydroelectric power. Nov 05, 2010 layout of hydro electric power plant spillway. Guide on how to develop a small hydropower plant the present document is an updated version developed by the thematic network on small hydropower tnshp of the laymans guidebook on how to develop a small hydro site, by celso penche1998. Guide on how to develop a small hydropower plant esha 2004 a low pressure pipe, can be an economical option.
History of hydropower development wind and running water were the only available sources of mechanical power fig. The dam is the most important component of hydroelectric power plant. It can be seen as a form of solar energy, as the sun powers the hydrologic cycle which gives the earth its water. There several important components of the hydroelectric power plant which we will go over in this brief and informative article. The potential power that can be derived from a volume of water is directly proportional to the working head, so that a highhead installation requires a smaller volume of. Hydroelectric power is the most popular green energy source for several reasons. Dec 17, 2014 if the power plant is operated only to meet the peak demand then it is called peak load plants. Three main types of highhead power developments may be discerned. In general this is also the nameplate rating except where turbine. The fs includes drawings for general project layout, topography, dam site. The different parts of a hydroelectric power plant are 1 dam dams are structures built over rivers to stop the water flow and form a reservoir.
Six important components of hydroelectric power plants. For the formulation of a project and its layout, suitable topographical maps of the area are. The turbine system is designed around net head and design flow. Army, usa, technical manual tm 58116, electric power plant design. Ontario hydro niagara falls power plant control room. Hydroelectric power plants are categorized according to size.
Jan 12, 2018 on this channel you can get education and knowledge for general issues and topics. In the past waterwheels were used for milling, pumping and lifting water from a lower to a higher elevation for irrigation. First, the cost of the fuel needed to generate hydropower is miniscule because the process doesnt use any of the more common polluting fuels, such as oil, coal, or natural gas. If we talk about the overall efficiency of steam power plant, than is about 35 % to 41% which is low. This raises the possibility that power plant developers will continue to follow the pattern of the 1990s and rely heavily on natural gas plants to meet the need for new generating capacity with current technology, coalfired power plants using carbon capture equipment are an expensive source of electricity in a carbon control case. Water, when it is falling by the force of gravity, can be used to turn turbines and generators that produce electricity. In hydro electric plant, the cost of generation being free. Hydro power g ener ation ca n be inc reased at a given plant by optimizin g a number of dif ferent aspects of plant oper ations, includi ng the settings of individu al units, the coord ination of. Generation of electricity by hydropower potential energy in stored water is one of the cleanest methods of producing electric power. The reservoir stores the water flowing down the river. Hydroelectric power plant parts working diagram layout. There is a growing interest to build pumped storage hydroelectric power plants in order to use them for system regulation purposes. The following factors are to be considered for selecting the site of a hydroelectric power plant.
Hydroelectric power plant requires various components for. Power plant electrical distribution systems gary w castleberry, pe course description this one hour course provides an introduction to the design of electrical distribution systems found in electrical power generation plants. Here i am going to explain you the different types of power generating stations or power plant. In the late 19th century, hydropower became a source for generating electricity. These favorable characteristics continue to make hydroelectric projects attractive sources of electric power. We will understand the gas turbine power plant layout and learn the diagram. The above image shows the typical layout of a hydroelectric power plant and its basic components. In 2009, the three most heavily used sources for generating electricity were coal, natural gas and oil. The funding was provided by the washington state education and training coordinating board. Such plants are suitable were water with suitable head are.
However the hydro electric power plant have the following disadvantages. First, let us know what is the function of a power generating station. Hydropower is a renewable source of energy, which is economical, nonpolluting and environmentally benign among all renewable sources of energy. Mar 21, 2020 hydroelectric power is a preferred energy source in areas with heavy rainfall and with hilly or mountainous regions that are in reasonably close proximity to the main load centres. The main powerhouse structure, housing the generating units and having either separate or combined generator and turbine room, erection bay, and. May 25, 2018 general layout of thermal power plant hindi we discuss about general layout of thermal power plant.
It can be seen as a form of solar energy, as the sun powers the hydrologic cycle. For efficient operation of hydropower plants, in order to meet the electricity demand, the hydro energy is stored either in reservoirs for dam based schemes. Components of a hydropower plant and their functions. Nothing is perfect, so its ordinary to meet some drawbacks of hydroelectric power plant like. Hydro station has special requirement of site which usually is an isolated area with difficult access. Apart from above classification, hydroelectric power plants can be classified, on the basis of installed capacity, as large, medium, small, mini, and micro hydro power plants. On this channel you can get education and knowledge for general issues and topics. A power generating station or power plant uses various sources like hydel energy, thermal energy, diesel, nuclear energy to produce bulk electric power. Estimation of the water flow rate the water flow rate q can be estimated in different ways but a more suitable method could be measuring. The different parts of a hydroelectric power plant are.
The power generation skill standards for plant operators and plant mechanics are the result of a collaborative project led by the centralia college center of excellence for energy technology. Hydroelectric power plant definition, principle, usage. Hydroelectric power comes from flowing water winter and spring runoff from mountain streams and clear lakes. Banerjee,department of electrical engineering, iit kharagpur.
A simplified layout of a thermal power station is shown below. The type of equipment utilized in the electrical distribution systems is discussed in terms of. General layout and profile of a highhead diversion canal development the main parts of a high. Results the design procedure of micro hydro electric power plant was implemented by matlab simulink computer program. The engineering cost in addition to the constructional cost is also high in a hydroelectric power plant. In general, pumped storage power plants are peak load plants. A hydropower plant was designed to provide electricity to a midsize farm. Hydroelectric energy is the most widely used form of renewable energy, accounting for 16 percent of global electricity consumption. Basic layout and working of a thermal power plant by kiran daware power system almost two third of electricity requirement of the world is fulfilled by thermal power plants or thermal power stations. Technology for a better society a hydro power plant can be represented by the following subsystems. Hydro electric power is cheaper as compared with a fuel burning plant.
These power plants are similar in design and operation to coal fired plants. Also in order to avoid the over flow of water out of the dam especially during rainy seasons spillways are provided. It is a flexible source of electricity and also the cost of electricity generation is relatively low. The most common type of hydroelectric power plant is an impoundment facility. In a coal based thermal power plant, coal is transported from coal mines to the generating station. Pdf the power consumption of the farms in uae is mainly required during. Mar 18, 2017 in this article we are going to learn how hydroelectric power plant works, what are the requirements of hydroelectric power plant for the selection of site, etc.
Water is diverted from a stream into a pipeline, where it is carried downhill and through the turbine flow. A coalfired power plant uses steam to turn the turbine blades. Interview question of hydro electric power station. A study of hydroelectric power penn state college of. It can be an excellent method of harnessing renewable energy from small rivers and streams. Cost of generation per kwh for hydro station and thermal station are in the ratio 1. The definition of a small hydro project varies but a generating capacity of up to 10 megawatts mw is generally accepted as the upper limit of what can be termed small hydro. Some large hydro sites that are remote from load centres may be sufficiently attractive to justify the long highvoltage transmission lines. If the power plant is operated only to meet the peak demand then it is called peak load plants. The hot and highpressure air from the combustion chamber is then passed to the gas turbine where it expands and does the mechanical work. Net head is the pressure available to the turbine when water is flowing more on this later, and design flow is the maximum amount of flow the hydro system is designed to accommodate.